Due to repeated structural fires in mining camps, property owners in the more permanent towns started to build stores and some houses of brick. Two of these towns included Briggsville and Horsetown. Clay deposits had been discovered along the Sacramento River by the first pioneers so there was a ready supply for brick kilns. Although brick material was plentiful, mortar made from limestone was in shorter supply. So about 1858 the Clough family moved to Shasta County and saw the advantage of the Bullion Gulch site: easy access to limestone without a lot of inclusions, a nearby supply of timber to burn the limestone creating slaked lime, a ready supply of sand and gravel at almost no cost, and a road with easy access to two local markets. The husband Samuel Clough who was born in England about 1826 was by trade a brick mason. With him in the 1860 U.S. Census were his wife Deborah (nee Turner) born about 1830 in Pennsylvania (the family tradition says Nova Scotia) and daughter May (Mary) born about 1851 in Pennsylvania.
California being ahead of its time passed an act in 1852 whereby married women could transact business in their own name by filing an affidavit as a sole trader and having it published in a newspaper. The act was to prevent lawsuits brought against a man for his wife’s business debts. The act also limited the amount of community property that could be invested in a wife’s sole trader business or property. The second part came about when husbands tried to avoid bankruptcy by putting all the assets in their wives name. Deborah Clough filed her affidavit in the Shasta Republican on February 20, 1858, stating her intent to run a lime kiln at Briggsville.
We know from the family history that Samuel had died by 1864 when Deborah and her daughter Mary moved to Idaho City, Idaho where Deborah is believed to have remarried. It is believed that the lime kiln continued to operate after their departure but seems to have closed before Briggsville was destroyed by hydraulic mining and Horestown was destroyed by dredge mining.
As a historic note Samuel and Deborah appear to have no relationship with Albian Caparis Clough who had land along Clough Creek in the Millville area.